Eolss online dating

By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. The oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.The first identifiable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia.In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets.Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but simply have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier; nevertheless such 'incidental' selection was an important part of crop domestication.There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE.Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE.

F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with the standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny many (ten or more) generations before release selections are identified to be released as a variety or cultivar.

Synthetic hexaploids made by crossing the wild goatgrass wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii and various durum wheats are now being deployed, and these increase the genetic diversity of cultivated wheats.

Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 (at Cayonu) and 8400 BCE (Abu Hureyra), that is, in the Neolithic period.

With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria.

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Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014).

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