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Gradually, Arabic inscriptions replaced Pahlevi, and dating based on the regnal year of the shah was replaced by the Islamic calendar, which takes Muhammad’s June 622 CE migration from Mecca to Medina (the Hijra) as a starting point.For example, 661 CE is 41 AH (Anno Hegirae – “year of the Hijra” in Latin). Possibly as early as 660, the minting of gold coins began at the Caliph’s capital of Damascus.The coin’s double or triple dotted borders were decorated with stars and crescents.
We call the state created by these Muslim conquests the Caliphate, from the Arabic word , which means both “successor” (to the leadership of prophet Muhammad) and “deputy” (of Allah.) The Caliphate would transform many things, not least the coinage of a vast region.632-651), was decisively defeated, although it would take many years to incorporate all the Iranian territories into the Muslim Empire.For decades, governors ruling a population that was still largely Zoroastrian (with Christian and Jewish minorities) were content to let local mints (34, by one estimate) continue to issue silver coins with the portraits and Pahlavi inscriptions of long-dead Khusrau II (r.591-628) and the reverse image of a fire altar and attendants.Some local authorities added a simple Arabic phrase in the obverse margin, (“There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”).